Middle Ages: Middle Ages, the period in European history from the collapse of Roman civilization in the 5th century CE to the Renaissance. For full treatment, see Europe, history of: The Middle Ages. The term and its conventional meaning were introduced by Italian humanists with invidious intent. It would seem unnecessary to observe that the men and women who lived during the thousand years or so preceding the Renaissance were not conscious of living in the Middle Ages.
In the Middle Ages, the great hall was still the center of a castle but the lord had his own room above it. This room was called the solar. In it the lord slept in a bed, which was surrounded by curtains, both for privacy and to keep out drafts. The other members of the lord's household, such as his servants, slept on the floor of the great hall. At one or both ends of the great hall, there was a fireplace and chimney. In the Middle Ages, chimneys were a luxury. As time passed they became more common but only a small minority could afford them. In the Middle Ages most people lived in the countryside and made a living from farming. However at the time of the Domesday Book (1086) about 10% of the population of England lived in town. Moreover trade boomed in the following two centuries and many new towns were founded.
Even in the later Middle Ages, the medieval peasant's life was hard and the work back-breaking. It followed the seasons – ploughing in autumn, sowing in spring, harvesting in August. Work began at dawn, preparing the animals, and it finished at dusk, cleaning them down and putting them back into the stalls. A peasant's hut was made of wattle and daub, with a thatch roof but no windows. Women wore a coarse gown over a sleeveless slip. Towards the end of the Middle Ages, when some peasants were growing quite rich, 'sumptuary laws' forbade them to wear clothes above their class. Village life was not all misery. Holy days meant a day off work.
Steckel cites several possible reasons why height declined toward the end of the Middle Ages: The climate changed rather dramatically in the 1300s, when the Little Ice Age triggered a cooling trend that wreaked havoc on northern Europe for the following 400 to 500 years. Colder temperatures meant lower food production as well as greater use of resources for heating.
The Early Middle Ages also saw an extensive increase in missionary activities. The missionaries spread Christianity to various parts of the world and helped in the fusion of various cultures along with it. Christian Campaigns against other Religions. Since Christianity was the dominant religion during the Middle Ages, attempts to purify the church and society led to many Christian campaigns against other religions. These campaigns were led by bishops, scholars and warriors who made efforts to make the Christian world free of all the non-Christians. Islam was in its golden period during the Middle Ages. The philosophers, scientists and engineers of the Islamic World contributed greatly to knowledge, arts, civilization and architecture. The spread of this religion was perceived as a threat to Christianity.
The Middle Ages was one of the great inventive eras of mankind. In its relationship to determinable quantities of energy, to standardization, to automatic action, and finally to its own special product, the clock has been the foremost machine in modern technic. .
The Economics of English Mining in the Middle Ages is the economic history of English mining from the Norman invasion in 1066, to the death of Henry VII in 1509. England's economy was fundamentally agricultural throughout the period, but the mining of iron, tin, lead and silver, and later coal, played an important part within the English medieval economy.
Valuable and highly readable. will be of interest to many students of medieval thought and culture, but especially to those seeking a general overview of this particularly conspicuous aspect of the medieval remembrance of the dead. A fascinating study of the growing prevalence of ghost imagery in ecclesiastical and popular writing from the fifth to the fifteenth century.
The Middle Ages were the days of the monks and of the armoured knights. During the sixteenth century the knights armed in full panoply disappeared; monasteries and nunneries were suppressed wholesale, or, as in England, vanished altogether; the clergy, regular and secular, ceased to be a prominently picturesque element. But throughout the ages which preceded the Reformation the monasteries were not merely picturesque; they performed functions which were of vital importance. When war and the chase provided almost the only living interests for men of gentle blood, art and learning could still find shelter and encouragement in abodes dedicated to religion and to peace; though the scope of both was rigidly limited, if not actually to the service of religion at least to fields which religion regarded as serviceable.
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|A||Living In The Middle Ages
Written By – D. A. Jones
|B||Put My Mind At Ease
Written By – A. Slack, B. Temple, M. Moody
- Published By – Bigtop Records, Inc.